History of Typography
The printed press products that emerged with the introduction of the printing press deeply affected the masses of people and thus reforms were carried out in many areas from politics to the military, religion to science and literature. The role of the printing press in the development of Enlightenment, Renaissance, modernization and technology is undeniable. The transfer of knowledge and thus its expansion and growth has been made possible only through the printing press, one of the most important communication tools of humanity.
With the invention of the printing house, writing began to be used as the purpose of reproducing, transferring, spreading and storing information in a more systematic way. However, it took many years for this technology to be accepted and therefore, although the development of printing took a long time, printing started to develop with Gutenberg's work.
It has been an important debate in scientific circles for many years when and who invented printing, which has affected our lives so much from the first day of its use to the present day. Many researchers have argued that this technology, which started with Gutenberg in the 15th century, was found by the Chinese. Other researchers argued that printing was developed by the Japanese and Koreans.
Printing techniques, which are known to be used in the Far East for the first time in history, then spread all over the world and with the initiation of the printing revolution by Johannes Gutenberg in 1450, the current understanding of mass production started and the printing sector started to form.
The printing press was first used in the Far East and the first printing press was invented in China in 593 AD. The first printing techniques and craftsmanship were very primitive. It is said that a Chinese named Pi Sheng tried to print by using letters from porcelain and pouring them one by one. Printing, which later switched to the Uyghurs, is actually a printing technique with a very old history. Some historical remains found by the researchers in the Tu-Hang cave support this. When we look at the 5th century, it is seen that the printing method was first applied to fabrics. In Egypt, with a technique similar to the printing press, the fabric was printed with carved patterns from wood. Arabic texts were also printed on papers in the 9th and 10th centuries with the same system over time.
The first publishing house of the Ottoman period was established in 1493 by the Spanish immigrants David and Samuel Ibn Nahmias Brothers; The first book Arba'ah Turim by Yakup ben Asher was published on 13 December 1493.
The Sonsino family, who came to Istanbul in 1530 over Italy route and settled here, brought innovations to the art of printing such as italic letters, page layout, foil marking technique and capitalization in the text title.
Apkar Tıbir established the first Armenian publishing house in the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century, and İbrahim Müteferrika established the first Turkish publishing house on December 16, 1727.
Work flow in Modern Publishing:
Modern matbaacılıkta iş akışı; baskı öncesi , baskı ve baskı sonrası şeklinde üç aşamada sıralanmıştır.
First of all, the design of the job to be printed is made. At this stage, the texts and photos must be transferred to the computer. The visual elements transferred to the computer are brought together in the layout software to create a design suitable for printing. This computer-aided process is also called desktop publishing.
After then, the film prints of the work performed are taken. The film is used to create the pattern used for printing. It is possible to rehearse after the film. The proof taken from the film is called analogue rehearsal (it is known as "cromalin" in the industry due to the Cromalin system of Dupont firm). Apart from analogue rehearsal, digital rehearsal can also be taken with printers that imitate the print.
After the film outputs are taken out, the image of the design is reflected on aluminium plates (mould). This process, which is called as moulding, carries out in two stages: Contact printing made by using the film, in other words exposure and development. Today, designs can be moulded directly from the computer, and thanks to this system called as CTP, film and assembly processes are eliminated. After the moulding is made, printing process is started.
After printing, surface coating (lamination) process can be applied through the materials such as cellophane and lacquer. By using bookbindery machines, processes such as folding, blending, thread sewing and wire sewing for multipage products and processes such as binder insertion and binding for books and magazines and processes such as moulded cutting for packaging can be applied.