History of Paper
Since the beginning of history, people used to write in the light of this need, as they needed to express themselves. Today, paper, which is the most used material in response to this need, has gone through many stages until its invention. In this adventure that started with clay tablets, various different materials were used due to the difficulty of carrying writing materials in daily life, and then a paper-like material made from papyrus plant was created.
The production process of paper, which started in 105 BC and is used today, is attributed to Ts'ai Lun in China.
According to archaeological excavations, materials such as hemp, mulberry tree and rags were used for paper at these times. In the Middle Ages -in the 13th century- paper spread from China to the Middle East and Europe, where the first water-powered paper mills were built.
Paper, which is indispensable for idea generation, communication and communication, was made by hand until 1804, but the impact of the industrial and chemical revolutions that emerged in the 18th century was also seen in the paper industry.
In 1798 Essones and L.N. Robert found the Fourdrinier paper machine, which worked continuously and mechanically. In addition, in 1840, a German scholar named Fredrich G.Keller patented a machine that made paper from ground wood fibers.
As the need for paper has increased as a result of the industrial revolution, rags have become insufficient for paper production, and therefore the search for new fiber resources has begun. At the end of this search, industrial paper production from wood started in 1870-1880.
It is known that the Turks who settled in Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert established paperhouses here, and during the Crusades, a cultural flow was formed with the French and Italians and papermaking was transferred to Europe.
Having been established in Istanbul in 1453 in the village of Kağıthane, the historical Kağıthane (Paper Mill) was operated intermittently during the reign of Selim III. During the reign of Beyazıt II, a Kağıthane (Paper Mill) was established in Bursa and this Kağıthane operated until 1520. In 1803, a new Kağıthane (Paper Mill) was established on the Hünkar pier near Beykoz and this Kağıthane (Paper Mill) was developed during the period of Mahmut II. There was "Istanbul" watermark, establishment date and operating year in the papers produced here.
The first paper factory that made paper with machinery during the Ottoman period was established by a private enterprise in 1886 in the Halkapınar district of İzmir, this factory, which works with a steam engine and used rags as raw material, was closed after 6 months due to capitulations. Hamidiye paper mill was established in Beykoz in 1887 and operated until 1915.
In the Republican period, the foundation of the first paper and cardboard factory, whose studies and projects were prepared by paper engineer Mehmet Ali Kağıtçı, was laid in Izmit in 1934. The name of this factory in 1934 was Sümerbank Cellulose Industry Governmental Agency. Its name is changed in 1955 as General Directorate of Turkey Cellulose and Paper Mills (SEKA).